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On May 6 Sony stated they had begun "final stages of internal testing" for the PlayStation Network, which had been rebuilt. However, the following day Sony reported that they would not be able to bring services back online within the one-week timeframe given on May 1, because "the extent of the attack on Sony Online Entertainment servers" had not been known at the time. SOE confirmed on their Twitter account that their games would not be available until some time after the weekend.
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On May 14 various services began coming back online on a country-by-country basis, starting with North America. These services included: sign-in for PSN and Qriocity services (including password resetting), online game-play on PS3 and PSP, playback of rental video content, Music Unlimited service (PS3 and PC), access to third party services (such as Netflix, Hulu, Vudu and MLB.tv), friends list, chat functionality and PlayStation Home. The actions came with a firmware update for the PS3, version 3.61. As of May 15 service in Japan and East Asia had not yet been approved.
While most games remained playable in their offline modes, the PlayStation 3 was unable to play certain Capcom titles in any form. Streaming video providers throughout different regions such as Hulu, Vudu, Netflix and LoveFilm displayed the same maintenance message. Some users claimed to be able to use Netflix's streaming service but others were unable.
On May 3 Sony stated in a press release that there may be a correlation between the attack that had occurred on April 16 towards the PlayStation Network and one that compromised Sony Online Entertainment on May 2. This portion of the attack resulted in the theft of information on 24.6 million Sony Online Entertainment account holders. The database contained 12,700 credit card numbers, particularly those of non-U.S. residents, and had not been in use since 2007 as much of the data applied to expired cards and deleted accounts. Sony updated this information the following day by stating that only 900 cards on the database were still valid. The attack resulted in the suspension of SOE servers and Facebook games. SOE granted 30 days of free time, plus one day for each day the server was down, to users of Clone Wars Adventures, DC Universe Online, EverQuest, EverQuest II, EverQuest Online Adventures, Free Realms, Pirates of the Burning Sea, PlanetSide, Poxnora, Star Wars Galaxies and Vanguard: Saga of Heroes, as well as other forms of compensation for all other Sony Online games.
A Canadian lawsuit against Sony USA, Sony Canada and Sony Japan claimed damages up to C$1 billion including free credit monitoring and identity theft insurance. The plaintiff was quoted as saying, "If you can't trust a huge multi-national corporation like Sony to protect your private information, who can you trust? It appears to me that Sony focuses more on protecting its games than its PlayStation users".
Ys I: Ancient Ys Vanished Omen (イースI 失われし古代王国 序章, Īsu 1: Ushinawareshi Kodai Ōkoku Jokyoku?) is an action role-playing game developed by Nihon Falcom Corporation in 1987. The name is commonly misspelt "Y's" due to an error on the packaging of the English release of the Master System port. This is the first installment of the Ys series.
Initially developed for the PC-8801 by Masaya Hashimoto (director, programmer, designer) and Tomoyoshi Miyazaki (scenario writer), the game was soon ported to the Sharp X1X1, PC-9801, FM-7/FM-77, FM-7AV and MSX2 Japanese computer systems. Ys saw many subsequent releases, such as English-language versions for the Sega Master System, MS-DOS, Apple IIGS, and TurboGrafx-16, and enhanced remakes for the Sega Saturn and Microsoft Windows systems.
It is frequently rereleased alongside the immediate sequel, Ys II; they are even treated as a single game, referred to as Ancient Ys Vanished. Some of these releases: Ys Book I & II for the PC Engine CD; Ys I & II Eternal (Story)/Complete/Chronicle for Windows PCs, PlayStation 2, and PlayStation Portable; and Legacy of Ys: Book I & II for the Nintendo DS.
The player controls Adol on a game field viewed from a top-down perspective. As he travels on the main field and explores dungeons, he will encounter numerous roaming enemies, which he must battle in order to progress.
Combat in Ys is rather different from other RPGs at the time, which either had turn-based battles or a manually-activated sword. Ys instead features a battle system where Adol automatically attacks when walking into enemies off-center. When the protagonist moves toward his enemy, damage is sustained on both sides. Attacking straight on causes the attacker the most damage to himself, but clipping the edge of the defender yields a successful differential. This combat system was created with accessibility in mind. This 'bump attack' system has become one of the series' defining features. Falcom staff have compared this style of gameplay to the enjoyment of popping air bubble sheets, in the sense that it took the tedious task of level-grinding and turned it into something similar to a high-score-based arcade game.
Aside from graphical differences, the game layout remains essentially the same across the many ports of Ys; however, there are some versions where the details were changed. The Sega Master System version, for example, saw some of the game's dungeon areas flipped horizontally (including some other minor differences).
The version developed for the MSX contained a handful of new musical tracks which replaced part of the original game's soundtrack. Some of these tracks, along with a number of unused tracks first composed for the original, were later incorporated into the soundtracks of certain later releases such as Ys Eternal and Ys Complete.
The Sharp X68000 enhanced remake released in 1991 was notable for its early use of 3D pre-rendering for the boss sprites. However, this ended up creating what is considered "a bizarre contrast" with the game's mostly 2D graphics.
The Microsoft Windows-based remakes, Ys Eternal and its various updates, Ys Complete and Ys Chronicles, is a full-fledged remake in every area. It introduced an entirely different look and feel, such as the ability to run and attack in eight directions instead of the original's four. It greatly expanded the setting with dialogue, cutscenes, and even additional gameplay areas. Complete features a different soundtrack from Eternal made to match the soundtrack of Ys II Eternal, while the much later Chronicle update features new soundtracks for both games.
The Nintendo DS received a conversion and revamp of Ys Complete called Legacy of Ys: Books I & II, which was released in late March of 2008 in Japan and late February of 2009 in North America. Interchannel helped develop the game. Atlus published and localized the game for its western release. The first bunch of copies released came in a cardboard box containing the game's DS game case as well as a special bonus CD that contained higher-quality versions of 30 music pieces from the game's newly-arranged soundtrack-- 13 pieces from Ys I, 16 from Ys II, and one from both (being Open Your Heart). The opening cutscenes from the Ys Eternal version are used. The game received a near-perfect translation with very little errors (the most infamous being Solomon translated as "Salmon"). The gameplay was tweaked considerably, allowing access for many crowds. Both games are available to play right from the start. Artwork from the Complete version is used. The game's world is in 3D with characters, bosses, and attack effects being 2D sprites. Difficulty settings Very Easy, Easy, Normal, and Nightmare are included for both games as well as a Music Player mode (where you can listen to the MIDI-based OST of the game) and Time Attack mode (where you try to beat every boss as fast as possible), the latter two being unlocked upon completion of their respective games (beating Ys I will not unlock Time Attack and Music Player for Ys II and vice versa). Controls were revamped as well, being three different options:
Composed by Yuzo Koshiro along with Mieko Ishikawa, the soundtrack is notable for its rich melodies in an age when video game music was beginning to progress from monotonous bleeps. This soundtrack is considered to have some of the best video game music ever composed, and it is considered one of the finest and most influential role-playing video game scores of all time.
EconPapers FAQ Archive maintainers FAQ Cookies at EconPapers The RePEc blog The RePEc plagiarism page Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization1980 - 2023Current editor(s): Houser, D. and Puzzello, D.From ElsevierBibliographic data for series maintained by Catherine Liu (Obfuscate( 'elsevier.com', 'repec' )).Access Statistics for this journal.Track citations for all items by RSS feedIs something missing from the series or not right? See the RePEc data check for the archive and series.Volume 77, issue 3, 2011 Migration for degrading work as an escape from humiliation pp. 241-247 Oded Stark and C. Simon Fan Sustainable capitalism: Full-employment flexicurity growth with real wage rigidities pp. 248-264 Toichiro Asada, Peter Flaschel, Alfred Greiner and Christian Proaño Why do leaders matter? 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Reed Networks of manufacturers and retailers pp. 351-367 Ana Mauleon, José Sempere-Monerris and Vincent Vannetelbosch A consolidated model of self-fulfilling expectations and self-destroying expectations in financial markets pp. 368-381 Yan Gao and Honggang Li Born under a lucky star? pp. 382-392 Nobuyuki Hanaki, Alan Kirman and Matteo Marsili Field and online experiments on self-control pp. 393-404 Nicholas Burger, Gary Charness and John LynhamVolume 77, issue 2, 2011 Option traders use (very) sophisticated heuristics, never the Black-Scholes-Merton formula pp. 97-106 Espen Gaarder Haug and Nassim Nicholas Taleb Joint liability versus individual liability in credit contracts pp. 107-123 Malgosia Madajewicz Does volatility matter? 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Richerson and Georg Schwesinger Adam Smith: Class, labor, and the industrial revolution pp. 481-496 Michael Perelman Pirational choice: The economics of infamous pirate practices pp. 497-510 Peter Leeson Social norms and individual savings in the context of informal insurance pp. 511-530 Zaki Wahhaj Social comparison and performance: Experimental evidence on the fair wage-effort hypothesis pp. 531-543 Simon Gächter and Christian Thöni Size doesn't matter! Gift exchange in experimental labor markets pp. 544-548 Jordi Brandts, Klarita Gërxhani, Arthur Schram and Jolanda Ygosse-Battisti Gender and the social costs of claiming value: An experimental approach pp. 549-562 Fiona Greig Psychological bias and gender wage gap pp. 563-573 Frederic Palomino and Eloïc-Anil Peyrache Neuroeconomics: Constructing identity pp. 574-583 John Davis Can neoclassical economics handle complexity? The fallacy of the oil spot dynamic pp. 584-596 Magda Fontana Multiple equilibria and chaos in a discrete tâtonnement process pp. 597-599 Taisei Kaizoji A new test for chaos and determinism based on symbolic dynamics pp. 600-614 Mariano Matilla-García and Manuel Ruiz Marín Dynamics of moving average rules in a continuous-time financial market model pp. 615-634 Xuezhong (Tony) He and Min Zheng Learning and adaptation's impact on market efficiency pp. 635-653 David Goldbaum and Valentyn Panchenko Risk and preference reversals in intertemporal choice pp. 654-668 Anke Gerber and Kirsten Rohde Rational investor sentiment in a repeated stochastic game with imperfect monitoring pp. 669-704 Anke Gerber, Thorsten Hens and Bodo Vogt The culture of private negotiation: Endogenous price anchors in simple bilateral bargaining experiments pp. 705-715 Owen R. Phillips and Dale J. 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A model of multi-product competition pp. 184-195 Ofer Azar Board composition and nonprofit conduct: Evidence from hospitals pp. 196-208 James A. Brickley, R. Lawrence Van Horn and Gerard J. Wedig Short on shots: Are calls for cooperative restraint effective in managing a flu vaccines shortage? pp. 209-224 Alain de Janvry, Elisabeth Sadoulet and Sofia Villas-Boas Social image concerns and prosocial behavior: Field evidence from a nonlinear incentive scheme pp. 225-237 Nicola Lacetera and Mario Macis Inequality aversion and efficiency with ordinal and cardinal social preferences--An experimental study pp. 238-253 Dorothea K. 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